Iselin’s disease is an orthopedic condition that affects young athletes, often under diagnosed. This disease is a type of osteochondroses of the fifth metatarsal apophyses produced by the repeated traction of the peroneus brevis muscle. This could lead to confusion with other conditions such as severe fractures (stress, fracture of Jones) in the proximal region of the fifth metatarsal.
We review the clinical and radiological diagnosis, highlighting the importance of the oblique projection for a better visualization of the ossification center, and bilateral comparative X-Ray. The fracture lines are generally transverse to the methafisodifisarial axis of the fifth metatarsal, while in Iselin disease the lines usually present obliquely to this axis.
The importance of a correct diagnosis is crucial, due to the difference in treatment. In Iselin’s disease the treatment will be conservative with a rapid recovery, while in fractures it consists of immobilization and physical inactivity for a longer period of time, consequently impacting on both the academic and sport activities of the patient.
Keywords: Iselin’s disease. Adolescent. Sport medicine. Metatarsal bone. Osteochondrosis.