Prematurity is one of the most prevalent health problems affecting the infant population. The frequency of premature infants in the developed world is on the rise, and the increased survival rates that have been achieved mean that there are now more premature infants being seen in primary care pediatricians’ consults. In general, children with birth weights under 1500 g or a gestational age under 32 weeks are included in hospital follow-up programs, but the majority of the consultations required by these children are with primary care pediatricians. The primary care pediatrician should be aware of the follow-up program in which the child is enrolled and should ensure that all controls are being carried out. Nearly 20% of the infants under 1500 g abandon the follow-up programs; therefore, the only pediatrician who will evaluate these children is the primary care physician.
Growth and nutrition are two of the areas where greater attention should be paid, especially during the first months after hospital discharge. Today we know that children who grow better have a better neurological evolution. Mother’s milk affords multiple benefits to premature babies; therefore, it is very important that breastfeeding be supported in primary care. Information should also be known on the characteristics of mother’s milk substitute products available for premature infants.
Keywords: Child Health. Prematurity.