Management of type 1 diabetes in infancy and childhood has evolved in the recent years, due to the intensification of treatment and the recognition of new targets in childhood diabetes’ treatment. Dietary management and exercise remain critical components in blood glucose regulation, and monitoring of glycemic control is the key to a successful outcome. Self-management education and continuous motivation are essential to manage the disease. The Primary Care paediatrician provides a strong aid to support the patient and his family in these issues, and can play a major role in early detection. Furthermore, primary care professionals should be able to manage situations as hypoglycaemia and infections, and must pay attention to the psychological care of these patients and their families.
Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition. Diabetes education. Self-monitoring. Hypoglycemia. Ketosis.