Vitamin D is a complex hormone involved in calcium homeostasis and other multiple functions of various organs. The vitamin D deficiency is associated with rickets and osteomalacia. In the last decades, numerous studies have shown a resurgence of nutritional rickets and an important role of vitamin D in maintaining innate immunity, preventing infections, autoimmune diseases, 15 types of cancer, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 and psychiatric diseases.
The main source of vitamin D is the sun, and the diet provides only 10%. Changes in lifestyle, migration and public health campaigns that advise avoiding the sun in children because of the risk of skin cancer, has lead to a lower sun exposition conditioning the resurgence of vitamin D deficiency.
As supplements of vitamin D at recommended doses have very few side effects and at present there is not agreement about sunscreen evenly balanced, it seems appropriate to supplement with vitamin D. Therefore, the Canadian Paediatric Society, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the recommendations of Australia and New Zealand and the PrevInfad Spanish group recommend 400 UI of vitamin D everyday for all children during their first year of life.
Keywords: Vitamin D. Rickets.